The History Of Industrial Engineering

The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology defines industrial engineering as: the profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences gained by study, experience and practice is applied with judgment to develop ways to utilize economically, the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind concerned with the design, improvement and installation of integrated systems of people, materials, equipment and energy. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems.

History

The origins of industrial engineering can be traced back to many different sources. Fredrick Winslow Taylor is most often considered as the father of industrial engineering even though all his ideas where not original. Some of the preceding influences may have been Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo and John Stuart Mill. All of their works provided classical liberal explanations for the successes and limitations of the Industrial Revolution.

Another major contributor to the field was Charles W. Babbage. a mathematics professor. One of his major contributions to the field was his book On the Economy of Machinery and Manufacturers in 1832. In this book he discusses many different topics dealing with manufacturing, a few of which will be extremely familiar to an IE. Babbage discusses the idea of the learning curve, the division of task and how learning is affected, and the effect of learning on the generation of waste.

In the late nineteenth century more developments where being made that would lead to the formalization of industrial engineering. Henry R. Towne stressed the economic aspect of an engineer’s job. Towne belonged to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) as did many other early American pioneers in this new field. The IE handbook says the, “ASME was the breeding ground for industrial engineering. Towne along with Fredrick A. Halsey worked on developing and presenting wage incentive plans to the ASME. It was out of these meetings that the Halsey plan of wage payment developed. The purpose was to increase the productivity of workers without negatively affecting the cost of production. The plan suggested that some of the gains be shared with the employees.. This is one early example of one profit sharing plan.

Henry L. Gantt belonged to the ASME and presented papers to the ASME on topics such as cost, selection of workers, training, good incentive plans, and scheduling of work. He is the originator of the Gantt chart, currently the most popular chart used in scheduling of work.

hat would Industrial Engineering be without mentioning Fredrick Winslow Taylor. Taylor is probably the best known of the pioneers in industrial engineering. His work, like others, covered topics such as the organization of work by management, worker selection, training, and additional compensation for those individuals that could meet the standard as developed by the company through his methods.

The Gilbreths are accredited with the development of time and motion studies. Frank Bunker Gilbreth and his wife Dr. Lillian M. Gilbreth worked on understanding fatigue, skill development, motion studies, as well as time studies. Lillian Gilbreth had a Ph.D. in psychology which helped in understanding the many people issues. One of the most significant things the Gilbrethss did was to classify the basic human motions into seventeen types, some effective and some non-effective. They labeled the table of classification therbligs. Effective therbligs are useful in accomplishing work and non-effective therbligs are not. Gilbreth concluded that the time to complete an effective therblig can be shortened but will be very hard to eliminate. On the other hand non-effective therbligs should be completely eliminated if possible.

In 1948, the American Institute for Industrial Engineers (AIIE), was opened for the first time and began to give a professional authenticity for the practicing engineers. Up to this time industrial engineers really had no specific place in the hierarchy of a company. The ASME was the only other society that required its members to have an engineering degree prior to the development of the AIIE.

What is the future for Industrial Engineers? With analytical methods and the advancing technologies for the computer, modeling complex production and service systems will become more and more an every day task.

Performing a motion study. Every job can be broken down into its’ fundamental work elements. The Gilbreth family found that there are seventeen of these motions. The time to complete each motion does not change. Jobs can be studied visually or through the assistance of a camera for micro-motion studies.

The environment for the workers also needs to be set up to promote efficiency of work. Tools should be placed in fixed locations to eliminate the search and selection therbligs. Work surfaces and chairs should be adjusted to the correct working heights to eliminate stress. Whenever possible, gravity feeders should be used to deliver parts to the correct location. The worker’s tools should be designed to eliminate multiple cuts. Adjustment handles should be designed to maximize the operator’s mechanical advantage.

Performing a time study. Without a standard the company will find it hard to estimate lead-time on their products. Times very greatly when the employee does not know what the expectation of company is. In order to correct this problem the IE will develop a fair standard expectation for each operation. It has been estimated that 12% of a company’s total cost comes from direct labor. Another 43% of cost comes from the material cost. The other 45% is spent in overhead. So the idea that the largest productivity gains can be felt on the floor does not hold up in this light. A good time study will take into account the unavoidable delays, fatigue, and to an extent, outside interferences. Time for wasteful steps, such as searching for tools, will not be included in the final standard. The expectation is that the workplace will be designed to accommodate the work and will be free from this type of waste.

Set-Up Times Set up time is the amount of time it takes to begin producing different parts on a machine. If set-up times remain large the company will operate with high levels of work in progress and finished goods tying up the companies valuable capital. Companies that fail to reduce their set-up times have a tendency to look sluggish in regards to their customers.

Cost An IE will generally be responsible for coming up with a cost analysis on the equipment purchase. There are a several ways of coming up with this. Lifehow long the machine is expected to last when developing the cost analysis.

Efficiency The traditional way of looking at efficiency was to keep the machine running at a 100% The idea was the cost of the machine could be spread out over the amount of time it was kept running. The higher the machines efficiency, time running / time available, the better the accounting numbers looked in regards to machine cost.

Material The IE is concerned with the delivery and flow of material throughout the plant, often the plant has evolved as the company has.

Lot size To allow the manufacturer to stay flexible the production lot sizes should be minimalized. This will only be economical after the reduction of machine set-ups have been achieved.

Inventory Levels Since inventory is capital that cannot be converted until finished and purchased by a consumer, it should be kept to a minimal. Inventories not only tie up capital but if the customer requests a change then the inventory runs the risk of becoming obsolete.

Quality The quality of the material can affect all parts of the system. Poor quality material often introduces excessive amounts of rework into each of the processes. A typical job for an IE would be to work with the quality department to set up a Quality Management system QMS.

Maintenance The amount of maintenance that the machine is going to require is a variable that must be considered. Another issue about maintenance is whether or not the staff on hand will need to be retrained.



The Eel – Fishers Basket

(A Chick Evens Story)

It was a fairly large looking basket, jammed with perfectly slimy looking eels and the old eel-fisherman felt they were simply priceless. Too heavy to lift by himself he had to pull it, so Mr. Chick Evens got out of his vehicle to help the old man carry the basket up a step onto the wooden sidewalk, taking glimpses into it-it had been his second day in Iceland, staying at a hotel in Reykjavik, he had just come back from the cliffs overlooking the coast (and a nearby lighthouse), forty-some miles outside of the city limits; he was no more than a mile or so from the city itself-now, and its coast.

The Old man was bringing the basket into a Sea Market Store with an abundance of seafood to be sorted, sold and shipped. A few workers rushed to help the old man and his assistant with the basket on the wooden walkway leading into the store.

“They look very fine,” said the owner looking into the basket. Evens, frightfully putout when he heard that, they looked ugly, narrow and with a dark damp and sliminess to them, and he pulled back from the basket, and the old man, and the owner saw that.

The rain started as Chick Evens turned about and stepped into the road, his guide was waiting for him in the car. The September winds blew through his cloths, his cloths wavy like leaves on a tree. The road in front of the fish market, lead back to Reykjavik, he was kind of on top of a slight hill. The Sea Food Store (or marketplace) had a porch, smoke coming from its chimney in back of the one story building, where there was the smokehouse, a garage, water tanks. Big trees against the gray woodened structure, it looked as if it was the first of the autumn storms creeping in. As Evens was about to reach the vehicle (for he had originally been looking for a café or restaurant, he was getting hungry), the owner stood on the porch looking towards him, strangely.

“Well,” the owner said to Evens, “have you ever ate eel before, or whale?”

“Hey, Mr. Evens!” said the old man stepping down off of the sidewalk step onto the road, “I’ll pull one of those eels out for you to eat, we can cook it up in the back, right here (and he looked at Edgar when he said that),” remarked the old man.

The old man, and Mr. Chick Evens stood together looking up at Mr. Edgar Gordon now, then down at the basket of eels. The wind was blowing straight up the hill from the oceanfront. They could hear the surf along the Reykjavik coast.

“She’s blowing down there hard,” Edgar said.

“She’ll blow like that until twilight,” said the old man, “is your cook in?” looking at Edgar.

“Let’s all go to the back, have a drink, and I’ll provide the whale meat, if you provide the eel,” Edgar told the old man, and the old eel-fisherman, nodded his head-yes.

Edgar went out to the kitchen and came back with three slices of whale meat, and a large eel cut up, and on the tray was a pitcher of beer and a bottle of water. Evens reached for the water. The old man reached for the beer-as they all sat by a fireplace behind the kitchen.

“All right?” he said.

“Good,” said the old man.

They sat in front of the fireplace and drank the beer, and water, as the cook took the sea food off the tray and cook it, with its thin gravy.

“It’s got a different, soggy and wormy like taste to it,” said Mr. Evens, looking at it as if it was a live alligator. The whale meat was more to his liking.

“That’s eel for yaw,” said Edgar, stretching out his feet under the table. “Better take your shoes off if you’re going to finish that eel,” he remarked, and laughed.

“Got any coffee?” Evens asked.

“Eat the rest of the eel, that ought to clench it for you!” said Edgar. “It’s a gift to try all you can in life, you can’t buy everything, but you can try most things out for size. Now that basket of eels isn’t as ugly as it was at first, when it first appeared to you-correct?”

“I can’t get into it, but it’s all right now, it isn’t a bad dinner, it’s just something I hadn’t tried before, dissimilar to my familiar tastes that is.”

Said the old man to Evens, “From old shadows what remains of them, it takes a shade of light, like dawn or anything in life, it has to slowly drift into you, enjoy now what time takes away, so much is swift to change, then comes old age. If a man has no variety, he cannot spread himself about.”

Said Edgar with his grizzled voice, “So many have died, millions and millions and millions, dead in their folds, in their wrinkles and collapsed before their time, who have lived in a stage set, you are to break branches, to clear paths, to new insights, I see that in you!”

Mr. Evens thought about that for a moment, thought about how he wanted to be a writer, and then ate the whole thing (even though his deeper thoughts on the issue were flat to hackled-he felt the eel was no more than a long silk worm, that sagged as he labored to eat it, a tongue that flowed down into his belly; a creature with no neck or shoulders. He thought it was no more than an earthly mortal sea dweller that had no purpose in life, no design and to no good to any man whatsoever, a lizard without legs, eyes like a black ominous owl). It all was a symbol he told himself. “Sure,” he said, and then asked both his new comrades, “Did you ever read “The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket?”

“No,” said the old man, and Edgar.

“That’s a real sea faring book,” he commented, and they both said simultaneously, “We’ll have to try that!” and all three laughed wholeheartedly, holding their stomachs.

No: 515o ((11-11-2009) (EP))

Note: In September, of 1999, the author went on a trip to Iceland, for an extended weekend, and did some whale searching in the ocean, off Iceland’s coast. He went into the interior of Iceland, and then out to the cliffs overlooking the ocean and to where there resided an old lighthouse nearby, and to an area where astronauts train, a rough and hot terrain indeed. Also to the Blue Lagoon, for swimming, and the fishing market he describes in the story “The Eel-fishers Basket,” where he stopped for a short period of time.



Key Benefits Of Using Entity Relationship Diagrams

Entity Relationship Diagrams are the best tools to communicate within the entire system. These diagrams are the graphical representation of the flow of data and information. These diagrams are most commonly used in business organizations to make data travel easy. This conceptual database model is an effective way of communicating with the individuals at all the levels. In order to implement this system effectively in your system, it is essential that you have outstanding knowledge regarding the Lucidchart ER diagram. This will help you in using each and every feature of the flow diagram in an effective manner. In order to gain appropriate knowledge about these relationship diagrams, you can search for an ER diagram tutorial online.

The most common use of this diagram is to present the relation of the various tables present in a database. Some key benefits of Entity Relationship Diagrams are further discussed in this article.

Visual Representation

The most crucial benefit of ERD is that it offers a visual presentation of the layout. Having an effective design provides assistance to the database designers to determine the flow of data and working of the complete system. ERD in combination with data-flow diagrams result in an effective visual representation.

Effective communication

The clear representation of the data listed under proper headings and tables results in the effective flow of information and communication. The readers can easily understand the relationship between different fields. The information is represented via different symbols. There are various symbols for representing different information like relationships are represented by diamond shaped boxes, attributes are represented by ovals and entities are represented by rectangular boxes. These symbols allow the designer to have a proper understanding of the working of the database after completion.

Easy To Understand

Entity relationship diagrams can easily be created by expert designers. These are designed in a simple manner so that all the individuals can understand it easily. Before actually designing the database, the designers are required to get the design confirmed and approved the representatives who are to use this data. The representatives have the right to give their suggestions for rectifying the issues related to the designer. Their contribution can play an important role in enhancing the overall design.

High flexibility

This is yet another feature of ERD models. Though the complete database is linked to information in different tables, the readers can easily make out the relationship between various tables. There are several other mathematical formulae which can be used to determine the relationships.

Entity relationship diagrams are an essential part of the business organizations as they prove to be beneficial in managing wide data in an easy and effective manner. It acts as a blueprint of the existing database and allows the designers to create an accurate design as per the needs and requirements of the company and the project. The ERD model makes data flow more efficient. These creative and simple diagrams serve as the best tool for the business organizations allowing them to maintain their database effectively.



Why Do So Many Models Support Social Causes, and Why You Should Too?

Many fashion brands such as Good Society and Vaalbara are following this trend too. In this article, we tell you some of the unspoken benefits of supporting a social cause publicly.

Appear to be inspirational and attract followers

In supporting social causes such as that of saving the environment, battling mental diseases, saving the animals, not only do you make the world a better place but you also appear to be a more intellectual and caring person in the process. This immediately boosts your likeability factor and attracts and retains followers. Through your beauty and modeling, you can serve as an inspiration to other activists and people who feel for the same cause.

You may get unique and niche modeling opportunities

Take for example the recent New York Fashion week which made history by showcasing Hijab style fashion on the runway by Indonesian designer Anniesa Hasibuan. This definitely serves as inspiration for the Islamic dress fashion and ascends the social justice cause for this fashion. Hence, as a model, you should be supporting for unique social causes you may actually be opening up yourself to many potential opportunities.

Do good and feel good

In general, as the old adage goes, “If you don’t stand for something, you will fall for anything.” As a model, you can make your mark by supporting a good social cause together with your work in modeling. It will appear on your bio and your soul will feel satisfied as well. Modeling is a powerful tool and steers society by setting trends and removing social stigma.

Case Study: The newest 17-year old-Asian and Japanese model sensation

A new, young, and bold Japanese Asian model, Rina Fukushi, at just 17-years-old is making her stand in the runways of the major cities of fashion – Paris, Milan, and New York. Working hard, she has made it to the big brand names of Miu Miu and Marc Jacobs, giving top models such as Gigi Hadid a fierce competition. We extract some lessons and tips that apply to models in their modeling career.

She was scouted

Some of us get apprehensive at the thought of being scouted, or when someone approaches us with an offer. However, most of the top models in the world, including Rina herself, were once scouted before top clients in fashion noticed them. Hence, most talents and potentials that get scouted should be more willing to step into the industry of modeling.

Ideal personality despite shortcoming of body requirements

In an interview with AFP, she remarks, “I like myself and I have confidence. What is wrong about being Asian or Japanese?” She is both confident and soft-spoken with humility and the same time.

She looks up to professional models such as Kate Moss, and standing at 1.76m, she might not have the height for a supermodel, but she is certainly striving for the inner beauty of Kate Moss.

Fukushi adds, “When she wears clothes, they look fabulous,” Fukushi says of Moss. “She has inner beauty and I think that is so important.”

This message comes off with huge importance to models that may be resisting a successful career in modeling in the due to stereotypes of height, weight or body requirements.

She’s Asian and Kickass

“I don’t feel ‘I am sorry for being Japanese’. If I am confident that clothes look good on me, people don’t see anything wrong. So it doesn’t annoy me.”

She wears confidence on her sleeve and proudly declares herself to be Asian on the international stage. Vogue has described as “ultra-cool” and “eye-catching” and now definitely serves as an inspiration to many aspiring young Asian models.

In the matters of serving, it is wise and best to follow your heart. There are bound to be social problems or issues that impact or influence you. Figure out what you feel moved by the most, and stand up for it. People who feel the way you feel will naturally be attracted by you and become your ardent fans soon after. Use your beauty to your advantage!



Misconceptions and Facts: Lies and Truth About the Business of Modeling

There are many misconceptions that spread about the work of modeling and that of the agencies. Let’s us find out more about the business of modeling.

Scouters are hunting any face on the street regardless of whether the person they pick is good looking.

Some common comments go along the lines of, “I can’t believe the Scouter is approaching such an ugly person, they must desperately want to get more models.”

A common misconception about modeling is that you need to be pretty, with flawless skin, perfect Jawline, and flat abs. That is one of the most untrue claims that serve as a psychological barrier for many potential models to join this field. Not all clients and projects require pretty faces and many actually need models of marketable looks, that can range from different sizes, ethnicities, and overall body features. Size is also not a concern, as there are many plus-sized models in demand today. Someone has to market the bigger sized clothing and a product that appeal to people in that category, and definitely plus sized is becoming more relevant in the modeling fields of today.

If a credible modeling agency is sending a scouter to the street to recruit new models, it is also sending someone to be the face that represents the agency in the process; it is not going to do so blindly. Much training and knowledge of the modeling and fashion industry are taught to these scouters before they are sent out on the street. They know the different types of looks that the agency wants and that can appeal to a client before they actually approach you and give you an offer. Of course, you also have a part to play and determine the credibility of the agency through proper research online.

Everyone is so busy, who has time for modeling? It’s too much work.

Modeling doesn’t require commitment on the scale of a full-time job nor are you bound to be involved in work that doesn’t fit into your schedule. It can fit in easily into your schedule if you consider that you will be on average receiving one job offer a week with some project commitments going to even three hours or so. Of course, there are longer projects which may take a few days of shoots to finish depending on their requirements. However, the best part is you get to pick up and drop the projects that don’t suit you. In other words, you have full flexibility in your work. However, a word of caution, if you are just starting out in modeling, do not get too picky, and focus on building your portfolio and reputation as a model first.

Nowadays there are so many comments and reviews everywhere, how do I differentiate the good and bad agencies?

This may pose a big concern especially in the age of the internet, where there are many false rumors floating around, and truth tends to get buried in the comments section. It may be hard to distinguish truth from the lies, and usually one only knows the true nature of the work and the modeling process once they sign up for it. One good way is to read reviews from credible sources and websites, and not believe wholesale what you read on forums and blogs which are contentment unregulated. Google and Facebook reviews are one such way where spam and imposter comments are unpublished or removed, and only honest feedback is considered.

Another good way is to find out the models involved in the agency. Are there a good number of models? Are there models who somewhat have a similar look to you? Do they take good effort and care to have a well set-up website? Any model agency has a need to have a good website because it is often the first go-to platform for clients and models. An illegitimate or bad agency can most often be spotted from their bad website maintenance.

Modeling isn’t for me, either I am born as a model or I’m not. There is no in-between.

False! Whether you know this or not modeling takes a lot of hard work, patience and confidence. Someone with the looks of Gisele Bundchen or Adriana Lima, but without their confidence can never make it very far as a model and isn’t someone who will get through a regular casting call. No matter how you look, your personality, dress sense and the way you express your energy and this confidence means a large deal more. This impresses clients and lands you the best job opportunities.

The biggest misconception of all may be that modeling agencies are not essential and they are just out to scam. If you flip your daily newspaper or browse through your regular online catalog to shop, or any other advertisement or billboard, they are not people who are randomly picked or someone who is from that company or brand of that advertisement. In short, they are models, who most likely come from modeling agencies, and clients pick them out of many other potential models.



Why Topsoil Is Important To The Survival of the Planet

To put it simply: we need food. And except for seafood, we need good topsoil to grow nutritious food. We also need the topsoil to allow vegetation to remain stable and strong in its place. Thus the health of our topsoil is one of the most critical factors in keeping the health of our planet.

This fertile upper part of the soil which we call topsoil is the upper surface of the Earth’s crust. And it’s not much topsoil that we’re talking about. It is no deeper than approximately eight inches (20 centimeters).

Thus one good stroke with a shovel, or a pick, can put you to the depth of your topsoil. What is it that makes this thin layer of topsoil so necessary, compared to the soil underneath?

Earth’s topsoil mixes rich humus with minerals and composted material resulting in a nutritious substrate for plants and trees.

Plants and trees will of course grow even if the topsoil is not so rich, but the better quality the topsoil, the better quality of the ‘product’ — the vegetation or food — that grows in it. And the better quality of the food we grow, the healthier we are.

Or, in other words, when thinking about your health, you should concern yourself with the nutritive qualities of your food. Potatoes, apples, spinach or whatever other food, grown in rich soil will have more nutrition than the same items grown in depleted soil.

So if you are concerned about this, then you should consider how healthy or nutritive your soil is.

Thus the topsoil represents a delicate nutritional balance. And healthy topsoil results in healthy food and an overall healthy environment.

The delicate nature of topsoil was misunderstood until very recently.

An example of the dangers of ignoring topsoil occurred in the years leading up to the Great Depression in the USA, in the 1930s. Up to that time, farmers rotated crops to create a better crop yield but did not understand the process they were dealing with.

So, when economic pressures came full-on in the 1930s, farmers planted profitable crops repeatedly, rather than rotating the crops. There was just too much need for some predictable income. They needed a cash crop. In the short term this may have helped farmers, but ultimately this practice stripped the topsoil of nutritive value.

As the stripped soil did not support plants, even light winds could pick up the limited remaining topsoil.

The stripping of the topsoil, what we call erosion, has devastating affects on the quality of our food, and also on the ability of the land to retain water.

There has always been soil erosion. As part of a natural process, it’s termed as ‘background erosion’. In general, background erosion removes soil at roughly the same rate as soil is formed. But ‘accelerated’ soil erosion — loss of soil at a much faster rate than it is formed — is a far more recent problem.

This accelerated erosion is always a result of mankind’s unwise actions, such as overgrazing or unsuitable cultivation practices. These leave the land unprotected and vulnerable. Then, during times of erosive rainfall or windstorms, soil may be detached and possibly transported long distances, perhaps to the sea.

Accelerated soil erosion by water or wind may affect both agricultural areas and the natural environment, and is one of the most widespread of today’s environmental problems.

According to BBC news, “Soil erosion by water, wind and tillage affects both agriculture and the natural environment. Soil loss, and its associated impacts, is one of the most important (yet probably the least well-known) of today’s environmental problems.”

One way to avoid soil erosion and to enrich the land is to use crop rotation as an essential practice. And we need to understand why we do it.

Modern sustainable farming emphasizes crop rotation. Farmers keep crops in rotation; allow fields to lay fallow, and plant nitrogen fixing plants. Many farmers also plow plant material into the topsoil to enrich the humus and spread compost.

They may also put manure in the topsoil, to make it more nutritious and rich.

This delicate nature has not always been misunderstood. For example, in Biblical times farmers apparently knew to let the fields be unplanted for one year out of seven. This allowed the fields to regain their vitality.

Crop rotation was already mentioned in Roman literature, and referred to by great civilizations in Africa and Asia. From the end of the Middle Ages farmers in Europe for centuries used a three-year rotation, with rye or winter wheat followed by spring oats or barley, then letting the soil rest (fallow) during the third stage. The fact that suitable rotations made it possible to restore or to maintain a productive soil has long been recognized by planting spring crops for livestock in place of grains for human consumption.

So the next time you look at your soil, don’t just think of it as “dirt” but remember that our planet’s existence depends on topsoil.

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1-800-TOP-SOIL members are the finest Topsoil and Landscaping supply companies in the nation. We currently have members spread throughout the United States. To find the best topsoil and landscape supply in your area call 1.800.TOPSOIL



Pros and Cons of Oil Spill Dispersants

Oil spills cause a lot of harm to the underwater communities affected by the oil. The utilization of oil spill dispersants is sometimes controversial because of misunderstanding about the principle of dispersing oil and the lack of knowledge of the limitations of alternatives response techniques. These dispersants are the chemical products especially designed for marine clean up. They are exclusively developed to deal with problems associated with marine related oil spills and the professional clean-up operations that follow the spill. The advanced marine technology has made it easy to tackle the marine oil spill problems with the help of advanced oil spill dispersants.

The main purpose of oil spill dispersants is to remove the spilled oil from the surface of the sea and transfer it into the water column where it is rapidly diluted to below harmful concentrations and is then degraded. The dispersants reduces the damage caused by floating oil to some resources like the sea birds, and minimizes the damage that could be done to susceptible coastline by spraying the dispersants on the oil before it reaches the shore. However, the use of the dispersants has the potential to present a small risk of temporary and local exposure to dispersed oil for some marine organisms.

The oil spill dispersants do not function to remove oil from the water. Instead, they break down great oil areas into much lesser pieces that make it simpler for all the sea creatures to deal with it. The down side is that dispersants also facilitates the spreading of the spilled oil more extensively into the atmosphere. While the center of everyone’s attention is to do everything possible to prevent the oil from reaching the shoreline, often it is often overlooked that there is a large effect on sea floor organisms caused by the oil. These days, robots are being used undersea to spray the oil-spill dispersants directly on the oil since it spreads on the ocean floor.

Using oil-spill dispersants is a controversial topic, as many people feel that they add to the harms caused by the pollution. However, there are other groups of people who support its use because it is the most quick and effectual means of reducing the harm that is likely to be caused by the spill. All the evidence that has been gathered during thirty years of research indicates that there is only small risk to marine life when the dispersants are used, when compared to the direct effects of the spill. It has been scientifically proven that the utilization of dispersants can be an effective oil-spill response method and there is little likelihood of oil-spill dispersants causing negative effects unless they are used in shallow water or very close to particularly sensitive species.

Even in cases when oil spill dispersants might cause negative effects, the positive benefit obtained by their use might outweigh this to produce a Net Environmental Benefit. Nevertheless, any use of dispersants must be carefully planned and explained to all those who might be affected by an oil spill.



Chess – Why Can’t They Ever Get it Right?

I get a little paranoid when I see chessboards set up incorrectly in films and on the boxes of cheap sets. Well, I watched the star-studded film ‘The Wild Geese’ again a while back (the one in which British mercenaries are sent to an African country to free an imprisoned ‘Nelson Mandela’ type) and what did I see in one of the last scenes? Stewart Grainger, brandy glass warming in his cupped hand, eyed his chess set and moved one of the 6 inch high pieces for all the world as if he knew what he was doing. And, yes, the board was set up with a black square in the right hand corner. If he’d really been a chess player (like Humphrey Bogart was), his professional pride wouldn’t have allowed him to make the move until the board had been correctly set up.

Then, from the other side of the room with gun in hand, Richard Burton quietly announced a mate in two. Clever stuff, indeed. From his angle, he could have seen nothing of the board through the forest of horrible, non-Staunton designed pieces. ‘Who cares?’ ‘What difference does it make?’ I do. It’s easy to get something right; you’ve just got to bother to ask someone who knows. Next time you watch The Great Escape take a look at the orientation of the chess board which James Garner and Donald Pleasence are playing with.

Manufacturers of cheap chess sets go to the expense of printing their cardboard boxes…but invariably either the board is the wrong way round or the queens and kings are on the wrong squares. Am I the only nit picker who goes loopy at this inattention to detail? Don’t these guys know anything about selling? You’d think that by the law of averages they’d get it right half the time…but they don’t!

I don’t really know much about backgammon but, if I was going to produce a backgammon product for the mass market and spending large sums of money in the process, I promise you that I’d be asking a couple of backgammon experts a lot of questions. Why? So that I did it right instead of wrong and so that I didn’t lose sales by showing backgammon players that I knew nothing about their game – and that I couldn’t care less either! There would always be the risk that some potential buyers would buy from somewhere else. Why doesn’t anyone ever take the trouble to get it right?



Monkeys And Bananas

One wonders why bananas and monkeys have been associated, especially in cartoons. How did this happen?

My take on this is that it happened as a result of colonialism.

The United States of America bought the Philippine Archipelago from Spain for $20,000 and occupied it for 50 years. In the beginning of the occupation, there was resistance on the part of the Filipinos. There were several fierce fights between the “insurrectos” and the American soldiers resulting in the death of thousands on both sides of the combatants. Civilians were also killed.

Obviously and logically, the colonizer feels superior to the colonized. Americans looked down on Filipinos. Some soldiers even called the Filipinos monkeys without tails. And they sang songs with words like “…in Zamboanga the monkeys have no tails.”

Filipinos love bananas. Then and now one of the main agricultural products is banana. So, Americans saw Filipinos always eating and enjoying several varieties of banana.

Yes, monkeys love bananas, too. But their main diet in the jungle, their natural habitat, is not a banana. Bananas don’t grow under the trees and in the thick of wild growth. They grow in open and sunny spaces. Filipinos planted bananas in their yard. Monkeys thrived on insects and fruits other than banana. The pet monkeys in captivity, of course, were served bananas since bananas were abundant in the Philippines. Some Americans did business by exporting monkeys to the U.S. for experimentation in laboratories. They fed the monkeys with bananas.

Cartoonists naturally drew monkeys eating bananas.



The Damages of Garbage Pollution

Usually people don’t think garbage would cause environmental pollution. In fact, garbage can cause the drop of air quality, water pollution and waste of resource. Besides, it influences the economic development.

Thus, prevention and management of garbage becomes a new important task for us. Therefore we need to know where the garbage comes from first.

First, it comes from industries. Industries produce various waster water, gas, toxic substances and chemical wastes. If they are placed in the open air or dumped or illegally poured into the river. As a result, the environment is damaged.

Second, domestic garbage: As citizens have weak awareness of environmental protection, they scatter waste paper and glasses. They use a lot of disposable products at will. Thus, much pollution is caused such as dust pollution.

Third, medical garbage: special products with a lot of bacteria have been leaved behind, including medical polluted water, medical wastes, one- shot injectors and so on. If they are not careful handled and directly poured into the river or simply placed or even illegally resold, some communicable disease would spread.

Garbage brings lots of damages to the environment:

First, water pollution: garbage produces a large amount of acidic, basic, toxic wastes. Some waste water contains mercury, lead, and cadmium which pollute the underground water once they penetrate into the ground. Most rivers are polluted by ammonia nitrogen, volatile phenol, and permanganate. Some rivers lose the self- cleaning function and thus, influence the reproduction of aquatic life.

Second, air pollution: in trash area, because of the burning and placing of garbage, there are various toxic gases containing sulfur. Dusts and small particles fly with the wind and thus, sulfur dioxide in the air significantly increases. Thus, acid rain frequently happens, so does the particle pollution.

Third, soil pollution: many areas are used to place garbage and thus, land degradation and desertification happen. Because of a large amount of plastic bags, waste metals are leaved in the soil, the soil is hardened, and not suitable for planting crops.

Fourth, harmful to human beings’ health: toxic gases are released by garbage and fly everywhere with the wind. As a result, sulfur dioxide, lead in the air arise and cause many respiratory diseases. When underground water is polluted, people may get diarrhea, trachoma and other diseases.

Fifth, harmful to the economic development: according to researches, 70% of garbage can be recycled. If it is recycled, it can create many profits, very helpful to the economic development and employment rate. Otherwise, it causes resource waste and ecological disruption which absolutely influence economic development.